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Thyroid Disease Management

Best Hospital For Thyroid Treatment in Chennai

What Is Thyroid

Thyroid is a butterfly shaped gland situated in, front part of neck below larynx i.e. the voice box. This gland makes thyroxine hormone T3 (Total or Free Tri-iodo Thyronine) & T4 (Tetraiodo Thyronine).

These two hormones are under control of TSH (Thyroid Stimulating hormone) which is secreted from pituitary gland in brain. The above Thyroid hormones control many of the organ’s function.

When Thyroid hormone is increased in blood then it is called thyrotoxicosis (Hyperthyroidism) & when these hormones are low i.e. decreased in blood it is called Hypothyroidism (Myxoedema) & when thyroid hormone is normal in blood it is called Euthyroid.Thyroid gland size may increase than normal then it is called goitre (normal size is 2 cm wide & 2 cm. long).

 

Thyrotoxicosis

Thyrotoxicosis is a conditionwhen thyroid hormone T3, T4 concentration increases in blood along with subnormal i.e. suppressed or low TSH is called Thyrotoxicosis.

Causes of it are Hyperthyroidism, Graves disease, Toxic multi-nodular goitre, toxic adenoma, thyroiditis (silent & sub-acute) & iatrogenic thyrotoxicosis, struma ovarii & pregnancy induced thyrotoxicosis ,iodine induced.

The symptoms of thyrotoxicosis are swelling in neck (goitre), weight loss, increased appetite, excessive sweating, palpitation, high blood pressure,,darkening of skiin, sometimes heart may fail or can develop atrial fibrillation (Thyrocardiac disease), swelling of leg, hair fall, vitiligo in skiin, sometime thickening & roughening of the skiin of leg. Eye may becomes more prominent & red sometimes may even protrude out. Sometime patient may get double vision (Diplopia) or rarely reduction of vision (Thyroid Ophthalmopathy). Patient may gets extreme weakness (Tiredness), body pain, dyspnoea (breathlessness on exertion i.e. exercise). Patient may also get recurrent diarrhoea, nervousness insomnia, anxiety, tremors of hand. Sometimes patient gets severe weakness of muscles so that he may feel difficulty in getting up from sitting posture (Thyrotoxic myopathy). Approximately one percent patient develop thyrotoxic periodic paralysis in which patient gets repeated bouts of temporary severe weakness of body so that he may can not stand up for few hours intermittently.

Bone may get weak called osteoporosis, also serum calcium & alkaline phosphatase may increase patient may pass excess of urine, develops anemia. It leads to lack of development of beard & moustache in boys & breast development in boys (Gynecomastia). In females it leads to infertility i.e. difficulty in conceiving & even if conceives leads to abortion.

Diagnosis : For diagnosis of cause of thyrotoxicosis some of the following tests Serum T3, T4, TSH, Free T3, Free T4, TSH, Antimicrosomal antibody (antiperoxidase antibody), Antithyroglobulin antibody. Radioactive iodine uptake, Thyroid scan, Thyroglabulin, thyroid binding globulin (TBG) are required depending on the likelihood of particular cause based on history & examination. At our diabetes & thyroid center we have most advance state of the art laboratory with all the modern facility for all above tests.

In thyrotoxicosis thyroid hormone T3 & T4 are elevated in blood & TSH low.

Regarding Eye complication of thyroid i.e. ophthalmopathy it can be unilateral i.e. one side prominent eye or both side. For diagnosis C.T. scan of eye, eye pressure & tonometry tested.

The various causes & treatment of Thyrotoxicosis are :

  • Graves disease i.e. hyperthyroidism there is excess production of thyroid hormone from hyper-functioning Thyroid gland. Two years treatment is needed for cure. Usually adequate treatment of hyperthyroidism by neomercazol or antithyrox or PTU should be under the guidance of thyroid specialist so that thyroid is permanently cured & no side effects of tablets develops.  Sometimes radio iodine therapy is required. Radio iodine therapy is a very effective treatment but its side effect should be evaluated first by detail history & examination. Surgery  for thyrotoxicosis now rarely needed. Complication of thyroid  surgery are hypo-parathyroidism & others.
  • Toxic adenoma : In this a single enlarged nodule produces too much thyroid hormone. It needs radio-iodine treatment or sclero therapy or surgery for cure easily.

Thyrotoxicosis in child needs special precaution & treatment.
Sometime patient may have T3 Toxicosis & T4 Toxicosis alone.

 

Thyroiditis

Thyroiditis is one of the common cause of thyrotoxicosis. This is of three type as follows :

  • Subacute Thyroiditis: In this condition there occurs inflammation i.e. swelling in thyroid gland due to viral infection. Symptoms are swelling in neck, pain in neck, throat pain, fever, along with symptoms & signs suggestive of  Thyrotoxicosis.Tests required for proper diagnosis are throid test, ESR, thyrod  antibody test & thyroid scan. With appropriate treatment it is cured permanently in two months.
  • Silent Thyroiditis : In thyroiditis there occurs leakage of preformed thyroid hormone from thyroid gland in blood due to inflammation (i.e. holes) in thyroid gland.  In  silent thyroiditis  etiology is idiopathic  with symptom & signs  of thyrotoxicosis but no pain or fever.with proper diagnosis & trweatment it is cured easily
  • (6)Hashimoto Thyroiditis: In this condition there occurs swelling of thyroid  due to deposition of inflammatory cells in the thyroid. Symptoms are thyroid enlargement  i.e. goiter  & symptoms of thyrotoxicosis.
  • Thyrotoxicosis (Thyroid) during pregnancy we keep thyroid hormone under tight control by every six weekly thyroid test & dose adjustment accordingly

 

Cure Of  Thyroid

Cure of hypothyroidism : Many times hypothyroidism can be cured permanently.If proper diagnosis of etiology of thyroid disorder is diagnosed then many times it can be cured permanently.Thus ask your doctor or meet us at our diabetes & thyroid centre to find out correct diagnosis.  Because many of the causative  agent once they are removed lead to cure  of thyroid.. For knowing whether hypothyroidism can be cured or not you may contact us personally or email us.

Cure of  thyrotoxicosis :Hyperthyroidism (Grave”s disease) is cured within two years permanently by proper selection of various drugs.Usually adequate treatment of hyperthyroidism by neomercazol or antithyrox or PTU should be under the guidance of thyroid specialist so that thyroid is permanently cured & no side effects of tablets develops.  Sometimes radioiodine therapy is required.

Thyroiditis due to various causes is cured in two months.

Cure of Goitre & thyroid nodule is also cured in many cases after correct diagnosis & treatment.  

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